Tagged with 'Hydrogen'

The next area of invention: Electric Aviation

Aircraft are extremely weight-sensitive, which is a challenge for battery development. Therefore, battery-powered aircraft will not have any appreciable share of aviation anytime soon. According to NASA research, turbo- and hybrid-electric aircraft are promising but challenging due to weight and complexity issues. What the industry needs is a practical approach to deliver longer zero-emission range in the near term, which can reliably scale to 1,000 miles or more in larger aircraft. This leads to the next logical fuel option for zero-emission power: hydrogen.


The commercial aviation industry reportedly accounted for 918 million tons or about 2.4% of global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use. While 2.4% may not seem like much, the International Council On Clean Transportation reported that CO2 emissions from commercial aviation increased by 32% between 2013 and 2018. If this trajectory continues, some say aviation could account for over 25% of the worldwide carbon budget by 2050.

At the same time, the U.N. warns that human-sourced CO2 emissions must be reduced by 45% of 2010 levels by 2030. Therefore, we have only 10 years to make a significant change or face catastrophic environmental and economic consequences.

Instead, we should make some immediate and fundamental changes in how we power aviation. If the industry ignores this, it faces the risk of regulatory pressure or severe growth headwinds from cultural and social changes.

To solve these problems, we should work to create new, truly zero-emission fuels. Building on years of great decarbonization momentum in other industries, electrification is the logical next frontier. The U.S. is gradually reducing emissions from electricity, and the electric vehicle industry is growing gradually in several regions. It’s time for aviation to follow suit.

Startups tackling the commercial aviation challenge are pursuing a variety of novel propulsion systems. Three of them flew real, commercially relevant zero-emission aircraft in 2019.

A hydrogen-electric company ⁠recently flew a modified Piper airplane. In June 2019, Ampaire had a maiden flight of its electric hybrid Cessna. Finally, Harbour Air and MagniX flew a six-passenger, battery-electric seaplane on a short test flight in December 2019. With several other startups and some of the aviation majors, like Airbus and Scandinavian Airlines, announcing their future electrified aircraft plans, the industry is beginning to move.


Hydrogen-Powered Flights

Hydrogen has been considered as aviation fuel before ⁠— from the CL-400 to the Soviet Tu 155 and the hydrogen-electric-powered Boeing in 2008. However, more recent technology and safety improvements, combined with growing real-world experience with ground vehicles such as trains, are finally making a practical hydrogen-electric commercial aircraft possible. Hydrogen-electric safety and operational reliability are now more established in numerous ground mobility applications ⁠— from fuel-cell-powered cars to an estimated 20,000 hydrogen fuel-cell forklifts in warehouses across the U.S.

There are already several hydrogen-electric aviation programs underway. My company is working to launch a 500-mile, 19-passenger aircraft by 2023. HES has announced a four-passenger concept that could travel between 500 and 5,000 kilometers (311 to 3,107 miles) and expects to have a prototype in 2025. Another four-seat effort ⁠— although more academic ⁠— is the Pipistrel, Hydrogenics, University of Ulm and German Aerospace Center airplane called HY4, which has been flying since 2016.

There are some challenges of hydrogen to overcome. Any new fuel requires new infrastructure. A new supply and delivery chain would have to be built across all airports. But we could do it profitably by effectively paying for it through the savings from fuel and maintenance costs that hydrogen-electric transports could bring. Access to renewable power near the airports may be limited, so on-site production would be more difficult and affect local economies. The solution could be a new delivery method, such as building hydrogen pipelines.

For the first time since turbines emerged 80 years ago, we are witnessing a fundamentally new propulsion technology take hold. We could see more electrified aircraft take flight and many records break as entrepreneurs and pioneers push the boundaries of what we think is possible. It will be up to manufacturers, operators and regulators to pursue zero-emission aircraft or risk playing a part in humanity's inability to reach its CO2 reduction goals.

Power One stores energy in both water and hydrogen

There is a great demand for energy storage today. Solar energy can only be collected during the daytime and therefore some of the energy generated during the daytime must be stored for night use. There are several efficient ways to store energy today, and different storage models have different advantages and disadvantages, but the most cost-effective way of storing energy today is through water.


Batteries are the most common principle of energy storage today. Lithium has a certain environmental impact, mainly in the manufacturing process. Therefore, there is not much that goes for that metal to provide the world with green energy storage.

Hydrogen is a very clean alternative that only needs items. solar energy and water to be manufactured. It is more expensive per stored kilowatt than Kinetic storage and battery storage. However, one of the benefits of hydrogen is that it is transportable to the place where it is needed. Ex. mining companies, factories, schools, etc. The infrastructure that is now being built is a so-called. Return system with tubes containing hydrogen.

Kinetic storage is a pure alternative compared to fossil fuels as an energy carrier. so pumped water is today the most cost-effective energy storage. What stops it is that it does not fit everywhere but the need exists for all green forms of energy storage.

Storage of pumped water is quite simple. The basic structure consists of an upper and a lower pond. From the upper pond, the water passes through a pipeline connected to a turbine generator, just as in all conventional hydroelectric power stations. The difference is that the turbine in a pumped storage facility can be transformed into a pump during the day to pump water back to the upper pond - for night use.

For pumped water storage of energy, there is a total storage potential of about 22 million GWh worldwide. These astonishing figures come from a report recently released by Professor Andrew Blakers and other researchers with the Australian National University's RE100 Group.

"Pumped water already accounts for 97% of electricity storage worldwide due to the low cost", says ANU, "and the proportion of wind and solar cells in the electricity grid is increasing significantly".

The huge storage potential is about a hundred times greater than what is needed to support a 100% global renewable electricity system, "says ANU. An approximate guide to the 100% renewable electricity storage requirements, based on analysis for Australia, is 1 GW of power per million people with 20 hours of storage, which equals 20 GWh per million people.

The concept has been developed by the Australian University and is based on small-scale PWS with a pair of reservoirs, separated by a height difference between 300 and 700 m, and connected by a pipe with a pump / turbine. Water circulates between the upper and lower containers in a closed loop to store and generate power. The stations can have a storage time of 4 to 20 hours and such a network of small-scale PWS provides sufficient storage capacity to stabilize the supply and ensure a stable supply from 100% renewable energy sources.

These smaller versions of PWS are mao. an inexpensive, reliable and sustainable alternative for energy storage. The only thing required is water and altitude difference. The method is thus dependent on the natural terrain, and works in naturally hilly regions.

Some energy companies have taken note of this and have developed these small PWS into a sustainable alternative for storage in areas with natural conditions. For example, the Swedish energy company Power One, which specialises in the electrification of Africa and its huge growth market in energy / stored energy. Now Power One is developing a combined integrated storage in both PWS and hydrogen for its projects in East Africa (Pilot area). In this way, cost-effectiveness will almost double, while Power-One can deliver energy both day and night to its customers.

Using the combination enables Power One to reach larger areas and markets for stored energy.

Welcome to join us on an exciting journey in green energy where there is enormous potential to do good for the planet, while at the same time accelerating development in developing countries. Within this segment, there is money to be made while contributing to a more viable environment.

Power One AB is an energy company that is at the forefront of global development. Right now, there is an issue in which the public has the opportunity to invest in the company.

During Q32020, management expects the company to be listed. www.poweroneburundi.com


Pumped Water Storage - the emerging cost efficient method of energy storage

There is a huge demand for energy storage today. Solar energy can only be collected in daytime and therefore part of the the energy generated in daytime has to be stored for night use. There are several effective ways to store energy today, and different storage models have different advantages and disadvantages.


Batteries are the most prevalent today, but lithium has serious disadvantages for the environment.

Hydrogen is very clean, and only needs water, but is till more expensive per stored kilowatt than kinetic storage.

Kinetic storage is also clean and can be used with both material weight, or with water. The use of material weight is still under development, so pumped water is today the most cost effective storage of energy.


Pumped Water Storage is quite simple. The basic construction consists of an upper and a lower dam. From the upper dam the water goes through a pipeline connected to a  turbine generator, just like any normal hydroelectric power plant. The difference is that the turbine in a pumped storage facility can be reversed into a pump in daytime for pumping water back up to the upper dam - for night use.

There are about 530,000 potentially feasible pumped hydro energy storage sites worldwide, with a total storage potential of about 22 million GWh.

These astonishing numbers come from a report recently released by Professor Andrew Blakers and other researchers with Australian National University’s RE100 Group.

Pumped hydro already constitutes 97% of electricity storage worldwide because of its low cost, ANU says, and the proportion of wind and solar photovoltaics in the electrical grid is extending considerably. This means “additional long-distance high voltage transmission, demand management and local storage is required for stability.”

The massive storage potential of about 22 million GWh “is about one hundred times greater than required to support a 100% global renewable electricity system,” ANU says. An approximate guide to storage requirements for 100% renewable electricity, based on analysis for Australia, is 1 GW of power per million people with 20 hours of storage, which amounts to 20 GWh per million people.

The identified sites are outside national parks and are mostly closed-loop (not river-based). Each identified site comprises an upper and lower reservoir pair plus a hypothetical tunnel route between the reservoirs, and includes data such as latitude, longitude, altitude, head, slope, water volume, water area, rock volume, dam wall length, water/rock ratio, energy storage potential and approximate relative cost. Brownfield sites (existing reservoirs, old mining sites) will be included in a future analysis.

Most of the indicated sites are for quite large storage facilities, but there are also smaller versions of Pumped Water Storage (PWS):

1) Small riverside PWS systems:

Small PWS are quite common alongside major rivers, but are limited in capacity, firstly by the head available and land available for the upper reservoir.

2) Off-river pumped water storage

A concept, developed by the Australian national university and based on small scale PWS is pairs of reservoirs, typically 10 ha each, are separated by an altitude difference of between 300 and 700 m, in hilly terrain or ex-mines and away from rivers, and joined by a pipe with a pump/turbine. Water circulates between the upper and lower reservoirs in a closed loop to store and generate power.

Very little water is apparently required relative to conventional fossil fuel power stations. Estimated stations could be in size from 50 to 500 W and with a storage time of 4 to 20 h.
Problems with initial filling and compensation for evaporation and leakage. Such a network of small scale PWS is claimed to be able to provide sufficient storage capacity to allow operation from 100% renewable energy sources.

These smaller versions of PWS are a quite cheap, reliable and alternative for storage in hilly regions. Some energy developers have picked up on these small PWS. There are several combinaqtions of storage possible today, and can be modelled relating to the specific environment. One example of a company working with this  is energy company Power One, which is specialised in electrification of previously non electrified areas in Africa. They have now developed a combined storage system of both PWS and hydrogen to be integrated in its projects in East Africa. Through this system Powerr One can double its storage cost efficiency, at the same time as the company can provide both night time electricity and hydrogen for transports to its customers. In other areas the combination can be different, depending on natural preconditions.

In the comprehensive global atlas presented by Australian National University’s RE100 Group, pumped hydro energy storage sites provided by users can browse to any part of the world and zoom in to obtain detailed synthetic images. Users can explore thousands of sites in specific locales, sorted by size and capital cost. Clicking on a reservoir or tunnel route produces pop-ups containing detailed information.

African Hydrogen - The time is now

Establishing hydrogen economies and societies in Africa will provide tremendous social, economic and environmental benefits - all at the same time as it will grow to become perhaps the most profitable investment available today.


That’s the message from the African Hydrogen Partnership (AHP), a to be multi-stakeholder association that has recently unveiled an ambitious vision to transform Africa from a vast and largely underdeveloped continent, to a region at the forefront of clean technologies with a thriving hydrogen value chain.

The plans would see renewable hydrogen produced and consumed locally in Africa, meaning the continent would be able to reduce the import of fossil-based fuels and chemicals drastically. This would reduce dependency on the US dollar and help improve trade balances.

AHP proposes that the savings from this, and from reducing pollution, as well as socio-economic benefits, could be used to fund new hydrogen programmes.

Next to those savings, new financial instruments such as Green African Hydrogen Bond could be developed for providing efficient access to capital markets to raise funding for green hydrogen projects.

The first hydrogen economies would begin with the construction of large-scale power to gas (P2G) renewable energy facilities or hubs along important trans-African highways. These would also be built in ports, where hydrogen stations would provide fuel for long haul heavy goods vehicles, buses and trains, all powered by hydrogen fuel cells.

The same P2G stations would also provide green hydrogen for industrial processes and green chemicals, such as ammonia (for fertiliser), green methanol (polymers), steel manufacturing (reducing agent), glass production (protective gas) and electronics (protective & carrier gas).

These trans-African hydrogen routes would connect major mining centres that use heavy-duty hydrogen vehicles (such as forklifts, tugs and bulldozers).

The routes would also connect harbours, trade centres, metropolitan areas overland and near-shore islands with hydrogen-powered ferries.

In metropolitan areas where there’s severe pollution, lightweight and convertible hydrogen fuel cell business vehicles could provide sufficient reliable energy to run a small business during the day and to supply electricity to the owner’s home at night. These vehicles would make clean transport and power available and affordable for everyone.

In AHP’s vision for a hydrogen economy, the consumer transports green energy from large scale, independent renewable energy production facilities and from local mini-grids to wherever they need to consume the energy.

This is a new, revolutionary concept for Africa put forward by AHP’s co-founders Vincent Oldenbroek and Siegfried Huegemann that would remove Africa’s current dependency on the electricity grid for energy.

“Hydrogen technology has accomplished tremendous achievements over the last four years. Costs have come down, products have been scaled up and at the same time all the developments like renewable electricity have become really cheap. These developments together made us decide the timing is right and 2019 was the year to start this,” explains Oldenbroek to gasworld.

“However, with climate change happening all over the world, for example the extreme warm winters in Europe, you could say maybe we are already too late. With all these environmental challenges we are facing, there’s no better time than today,” adds Huegemann.

Battery Vs. Hydrogen: There’s Room For Both Technologies

Last week Anheuser-Busch brewery made its first zero-emissions delivery of beer, and both hydrogen-powered and battery-powered trucks were involved to demonstrate how the two technologies can work together. The beverage company used a hydrogen-electric truck to pick up a load of beer from its distillery and deliver it to local wholesaler partner. The wholesaler partner in turn used a battery-electric powered truck to make the delivery to customers, marking the first zero-emissions delivery.

There is a something of a mild war between Tesla and the rest of the world when it comes to the debate on the future of vehicle propulsion technology. Although there are multiple power sources available on the market today–including natural gas, diesel, hydrogen, and petroleum gasoline–some automotive industry leaders feel that there should only be one: battery-electric.

Most large and intermediate-sized automotive manufacturers disagree with this narrow position, and are exploring multiple alternative-fuel systems, including fuel-cell technology.

Hydrogen is more efficient for powering large vehicles, such as full-size SUVs and trucks, for long distances while carrying heavy payloads. Batteries are large, heavy, and expensive, and quickly reach a point of diminishing returns as vehicle size and weight increases, which is why many transportation giants are placing heavy bets on hydrogen technology and start-ups.

Last year Anheuser-Busch placed an order for up to 800 hydrogen-electric powered semi-trucks from the Phoenix, Arizona-based Nikola Motor Company to make good on its plan to reduce its carbon emissions across their supply chain by 25% by 2025. These trucks can travel between 500 and 1,200 miles before a 20-minute refueling is required. But even when all of the 800 long-haul hydrogen-powered trucks are on the road, the new fleet will reduce the brewer’s logistics-related carbon footprint by only 18%.

Additional reductions will be found in part by working with battery-electric vehicle manufacturers. The beer producer will be deploying 21 electric battery-electric trucks powered by a 958.5 kW solar array in efforts to reduce emissions generated by its distribution centers in southern California.

Scientists Have Discovered How To Turn Seawater Into Fuel

With hydrogen fuel there are no carbon emissions. The only down side is that it uses water that we could be drinking instead. But now scientists have figured out a way to skip this costly water purification part of the process and convert seawater into usable hydrogen. This research is published in the journal PNAS.

The electrodes in water make it possible for the chemical reaction in which hydrogen is formed. When electricity is run through water it splits the hydrogen and oxygen, giving you a pure and zero-emission fuel source.

Seawater contains a positive electrode that attracts chloride, quickly decaying the metal. To tackle this problem, the scientists added a new metal coating so the electrode can last longer. The team was able to use 10 times more electricity with its device, generating hydrogen even faster than before. As a bonus, they made their design environmentally friendly, energy-efficient and powered it with solar cells.

The good thing about fuel cells is that it could store more energy than batteries while avoiding some of their environmental challenges.

"Hydrogen is the next generation of power because the energy density is higher than batteries, meaning that you can drive for a longer distance, or power heavier devices." explains Hongjie Dai, a chemistry professor at Stanford University.

  • Hydrogen-powered cars are already on the roads around the world
  • A hydrogen-powered train is now running in Germany
  • A hydrogen-powered ferry is coming to San Francisco this year
  • Hydrogen-powered cargo ships are currently being designed in Norway
  • The first regional hydrogen-electric airplane is being developed by a startup in Singapore


In the future, ships running on hydrogen fuel cells will be able to make their own fuel directly from the ocean with the help of renewable energy such as solar panels or wind turbines.

South Korea to build three cities powered by hydrogen before 2022

South Korea is trying to win the race to create the first hydrogen-powered society. It wants to build three hydrogen-powered cities by 2022 as it positions itself as a leader in the green technology. The plan will see the cities use hydrogen as the fuel for cooling, heating, electricity and transportation. Consultation on where the three cities will be located is under way.

The test cities will use a hydrogen-powered transportation system, including buses and personal cars. Hydrogen charging stations will be available in bus stations and parking spaces. The strategy is part of a wider vision to power 10% of the country's cities, counties and towns by hydrogen by 2030, growing to 30% by 2040.

This includes drastic increases in the numbers of hydrogen-powered vehicles and charging points in the next three years. The government has earmarked money to subsidize these vehicles and charging infrastructure.

Countries including Germany, Japan and China are also looking to a future hydrogen society, with a number of Asian car manufacturers including Hyundai, Toyota and Honda sinking resources into creating a range of hydrogen powered cars.

With fuel cell vehicles – or FCVs – generally offering greater range and faster refueling times than electric vehicles, there is great hope that they will accelerate the transition to cleaner vehicles.

But challenges remain with the technology. Although some FCVs are now on the market, for many the cost remains prohibitive and they have some way to go before they become mainstream.

The output from hydrogen-powered cars is only water as a by-product. Producing the hydrogen itself is an energy-intensive process though, but as long as the production is powered by renewable sources the system is completely clean.

Power One AB consider hydrogen in Burundi


Power One´s concept combines wind, water and sun as sources of energy production. This reduces the need for expensive storage. Power One plans to use electrolyte storage, but will also set aside part of the solar park to operate a hydrogen gas production plant, which can be used, among other things, to operate boats. Since Tanganyika Lake is still clean and crystal clear, the electric propulsion of boats is an obvious complement for preserving it undisturbed. At present, there are a number of vessels operating on oil, which are used but have not so far done too much damage. Hydrogen has the advantage of being considerably cheaper as a fuel then fossil fuel, and is therefore an irresistible substitute from all points of view.


Hydrogen can be used for electrically driven transport on both land and water. During manufacture, water is divided into oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen gas is collected in tubes and then transformed into electricity via a so-called power cell. With a hydrogen tube, a power cell and an electric motor, many electric vehicles are operated today, ranging from mopeds, cars and trucks to boats. It is a durable and well-proven technology whose only residual product is oxygen and water. Oxygen is used in everything from healthcare to welding and is an import commodity in Burundi. Both oxygen and hydrogen can therefore be sold with good profits for Power One.



Hydrogen is a well-known and reliable energy storage system that has been used in industry for almost a century. The technique is simple: DC voltage produced during the day from solar panels is used in an electrolyser to separate water (H2O) into hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O). The non-polluting oxygen is released and the hydrogen is stored under pressure into simple and durable containers. At night, when the sun is on the other side, hydrogen is led into a power cell that melts hydrogen with oxygen from the air back into water. Through this process, energy from daylight is restored back to electricity and used for night consumption.


If the solar park produces more energy under daylight than is consumed during the day and at night, the excess can be used to produce hydrogen for other applications, e.g. transport on the lake. In this case, hydrogen is transferred to gas tubes in the boats and then converted back to electricity via a fuel cell. This then provides electricity to the electric motor in the boat.


This is a very simple, well tested and durable system. With a simple pressure tank, a fuel cell and an electric motor, hydrogen can be used to operate all transport, including air, and today most of the major car manufacturers have developed hydrogen cars. The conversion of the region's boats to hydrogen operation is quite simple and plans are underway to start a rebuilding yard in Kabonga fishing port for this.


- By introducing an environmentally smart and emission-free boat traffic on Lake Tanganyika, Burundi will also market itself in quality tourism and offer an ecological alternative to other countries, says Janvier Nsengiumva, Commercial chief Port of Bujumbura.

Hydrogen-carbon low-for the future?

Hydrogen is the new kid on the block of low-carbon alternatives, with applications in mobility, industrial processing and heavy transport. It also can be used to provide electricity and heat, and can be blended with natural gas to help decarbonize existing natural gas grids. But even with these opportunities, across the globe — from corporate offices to industry roadshows — one hears a frequent refrain: it is too expensive and it won’t scale. (Interestingly enough, this is the same reputation solar PV had a decade ago.)

As misconceptions about hydrogen abound, there is an opportunity to dispel some common myths about this emerging technology.

This is not winner-take-all.
The energy transition will be a blend of alternative fuels and electrification.

When it comes to technology change, most people think of it as a roulette game where the winner takes all. The debate around green options for low-carbon mobility, as well as freight, heavy industry and materials movement, is no different. The general thinking is that the payoff will come from either electrification or innovative fuels, but not both. 
This is not an either-or situation. Instead, it’s like being stranded on a desert island and choosing between water or food when the only survivable option is to find both. The ultimate solution for low-carbon transport most likely will be a blend of electricity-based and fuel-based options.

Among the fuel-based options, hydrogen dominates the conversation. As generally happens when you’re popular, the haters are expressing doubt over the development of hydrogen resources, fearing that it competes with electrification and battery technology, but this concern doesn’t reflect reality. While electrification and fuels such as hydrogen both come with their own set of challenges, they both have important roles to play. 

When electricity from low-carbon generation is substituted for fossil fuels, we can achieve significant reductions in CO2 emissions. With its zero-carbon potential and the role it can play in increasing demand for renewable energy, hydrogen has an important role in our energy transition and is a key complement to electrification.

Hydrogen is already in high demand and the industry will only continue to grow.

New interest in hydrogen has come from the mobility, freight, shipping, power and industrial processing sectors as they strive to move toward a decarbonized future. There is, however, a large preexisting demand linked to refining and ammonia production and as a feedstock for industrial chemical processes. The development of the hydrogen market reflects the potential for distributed production and the need for flexibility in our transport mix. For example, hydrogen fuel cell buses typically have a range of about 310 miles versus 124 miles for electric buses. With this range, hydrogen has both the potential to decarbonize rural transport and to offer a solution for uninterrupted services.

Source: Greenbiz, 31 Aug -19

A new efficient Hydrogen Powered Car That Emits Water Instead Of Carbon Dioxide

It’s been a long road for fuel cell cars to get to where they are now, a possible option. It all started back in the 1980s when fuel-cells themselves had to be physically shrunk to fit into a normal car, not the back of a van. Then they had to make them affordable and the fuel able to be widely available. All of these obstacles have been overcome yet fuel cell cars still have not been mass adopted.

That is because they were not found to be very efficient. To produce the gas, compress it, and transport it is costly. However, there is a special little fuel cell car called Rasa that is drastically more economical and its creator has come up with a more efficient hydrogen distribution system too. The car and the system around are both part of a grand plan by the company Riversimple, founded by Hugo Spowers, former motor racer and mechanical engineer of race cars.


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